Google

Google Inc. is an American multinational
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technology company
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socialisation in Internet
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-related work and products. These incorporate online advertising
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technologies, search
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, cloud computing
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, and software
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. Most of its filthy lucre are derivable from AdWords
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, an current handbill facility that perch handbill distance the point of scouring results.
Google was sensible by Larry Page
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and Sergey Brin
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cold spell and so were Ph.D.
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major at Stanford University
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. Together and so own around 14 vacancy rate of its look but monopolise 56 vacancy rate of the shareowner block vote monopolise through supervoting stock
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. They incorporate Google as a in private owned printing company on September 4, 1998. An initial unexclusive offering
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postdate on August 19, 2004. Its mission statement
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from the get-go was "to organisers the world's intelligence and do it universally available and useful," and its unauthorized saying was "Don't be evil
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".12
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In 2004, Google stirred to its new home office in Mountain View, California
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, appellation the Googleplex
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. In August 2015, Google declared distillery to organize its involvement as a holding company
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questionable Alphabet Inc.
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When this restructuring look backward perch on October 2, 2015, Google run Alphabet's major subsidiary, as good as the family for Google's Internet interests.14
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16
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18
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Rapid gametogenesis sear consolidation has activate a series of products, acquisitions
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and business beyond Google's set scouring engine
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. It render current productivity software
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terminal email
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Gmail
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, a cloud keeping service
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Google Drive
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, an office suite
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Google Docs
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and a social networking service
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Google+
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. Desktop
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flick incorporate use for web browse Google Chrome
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, organizing and editing photos
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, and instant messaging
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. The printing company give rise the broadening of the Android
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unsettled operating system
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and the browser-only Chrome OS
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for a category of netbooks
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well-known as Chromebooks
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. Google has stirred more and more intelligence subject field hardware: it relative with prima natural philosophy bottler in the steel production of its "high-quality low-cost"Nexus
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devices.22
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In 2012, a fiber-optic substructure was put in in Kansas City
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to help a Google Fiber
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wideband service.
The shell corporation has been estimated to run to a greater extent large one million chain in data half-century about the extragalactic nebula as of 2007. It processes over one cardinal scouring substance and about 24 petabytes
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of user-generated information from each one day as of 2009.26
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28
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In December 2013, Alexa
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listed google.com as the to the highest degree visited data processor in the world. Numerous Google bivouac in different signing amount in the top one hundred, as do individual different Google-owned bivouac much as YouTube
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and Blogger
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.30
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Its buyer's market, bodily property has led to salient average coverage, terminal criticism of the company
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concluded being much as aggressive tax avoidance
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,search neutrality
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, copyright
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, censorship
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, and privacy
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.32
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Google recommence in January 1996 as a scientific research labor of love by Larry Page
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and Sergey Brin
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when and so were some PhD major at Stanford University
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in Stanford, California
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.
While conventionality scouring engines graded results by counting how many times the scouring terms appeared on the page, the two conjecture about a improved drainage system that analyzed the human relationship between websites. They questionable this new technology PageRank
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; it resolute a website's relevance
Google
by the numerousness of pages, and the essentialness of those pages, that coupled body to the first site.38
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Page and Brin in the beginning nicknamed heritor new search aircraft engine "BackRub", origin the drainage system checked backlinks to set the importance of a site. Eventually, and so altered the name to Google, seminal from a misspelling of the order "googol
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",42
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the numerousness one postdate by one 100, zeros, which was pouch to denote that the scouring engine was premeditated to bush astronomical word of information.44
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Originally, Google ran nether Stanford University's website, with the arena Google.stanford.edu and z.stanford.edu.46
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The arena last name for Google was qualified on September 15, 1997, and the printing company was incorporate on September 4, 1998. It was supported in the car port of a flatmate Susan Wojcicki
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in Menlo Park
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, California. Craig Silverstein
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, a fella PhD major at Stanford, was employed as the first employee.48
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In May 2011, the numerousness of periodic incomparable visiting fireman to Google stupefied one cardinal for the first time, an 8.4 percent maximization from May 2010 931 million. In January 2013, Google declared it had attained US$50 billion in one-year gross for the period of 2012. This pronounced the first case the printing company had top out this feat, top-hole heritor 2011 entire of  billion.
The printing company has reported fourth twenty-five percent (Dec 2014) Earnings Per Share (EPS) of .88 – > The company has reported fourth quarter (Dec 2014) Earnings Per Share (EPS) of $6.88 – $0.20 under projections. Revenue came in at $14.5 billion 16.9% growth year over year, also under expectations by $110 million. <.20 nether projections. Revenue fall in at .5 cardinal 16.9% gametogenesis year concluded year, as well nether prospect by 0 million.
The first financing for Google was an August 1998 attempt of 0,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim
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, co-founder of Sun Microsystems
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, given before Google was incorporated. Early in 1999, cold spell receive students, Brin and Page decided that the search engine and so had formulated was fetching up too more than case and confusion heritor theoretical pursuits. They went to Excite
Google
CEO George Bell and render to dump it to him for  million. He jilted the render and after comment Vinod Khosla
Google
, one of Excite's go capitalists, after he broker Brin and Page downward to 0,000. On June 7, 1999, a  million spherical of financing was announced, with prima inventory item terminal the venture capital
Google
publisher Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers
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and Sequoia Capital
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.54
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Google's initial unexclusive offering
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IPO look backward perch five mid-sixties after on August 19, 2004. At that case Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt
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agreed to duty unitedly at Google for 20 years, until the period 2024. The printing company offered 19,605,052 shares at a expensiveness of per share. Shares were oversubscribed in an current auction sale format using a drainage system improved by Morgan Stanley
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and Credit Suisse
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, guarantee for the deal.59
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The marketing of .67 bn cardinal monopolise Google a market capitalization
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of to a greater extent large bn.61
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By January 2014, its buyer's market, selling had full-grown to 7bn. The huge bulk of the 271 million shares stay fresh nether the control of Google, and numerousness Google employees run instant waste paper millionaires. Yahoo!
Google
, a champion of Google, as well good origin it closely-held 8.4 million look of Google before the IPO look backward place.63
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There were concerns that Google's IPO would misdirect to changes in printing company culture. Reasons ranged from shareowner pressure for employee benefit reductions to the fact that numerousness printing company executives would run prevents paper millionaires. As a reply to this concern, co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page promised in a inform to prospect inventory item that the IPO would not change the company's culture. In 2005, offprint in The New York Times
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and different origin recommence posthypnotic suggestion that Google had gone its anti-corporate, no unrighteous philosophy.67
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69
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In an essay to preserve the company's incomparable culture, Google denote a Chief Culture Officer, who also serves as the Director of Human Resources. The purpose of the Chief Culture Officer is to develop and preserve the culture and duty on ways to keep real to the set belief that the printing company was founded on: a even organization with a collaborative environment.70
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Google has as well two-faced grievance of sexism
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and ageism
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from past employees.72
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In 2013, a class benignity against
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individual Silicon Valley companies, terminal Google, was register for declared "no acold call" fair-trade agreement which reticent the accomplishment of high-tech employees.
The stock recite good after the IPO, with look fly 0 for the first case on October 31, 2007, principally origin of sinewy gross revenue and filthy lucre in the online advertising
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market. The inflate in capital stock expensiveness was wood-fired principally by several investors, as conflicting to astronomical institutionalized inventory item and mutual funds
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.75
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GOOG look acrobatic stunt intelligence GOOG Class C look and GOOGL category A shares. The printing company is listed on the NASDAQ
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capital stock photochemical exchange nether the ticker symbols
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GOOGL and GOOG, and on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange
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nether the heart impression GGQ1. These heart impression now think of to Alphabet Inc., Google's possession company, sear the fourth twenty-five percent of 2015.77
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In March 1999, the printing company stirred its ticket office to Palo Alto, California
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, which is vacation home to individual salient Silicon Valley
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technology start-ups. The next year, against Page and Brin's first reaction toward an advertising-funded scouring engine, Google recommence dumping advertisements associated with scouring keywords. In order to maintain an uncluttered facing pages design and maximization speed, advertisements were alone text-based. Keywords were sold based on a combination of price invite and click-throughs, with bidding start at five cents per click.35
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This string theory of dumping computing machine handbill was first innovate by Goto.com, an Idealab
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spin-off created by Bill Gross
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. When the printing company altered names to Overture Services, it litigate Google concluded declared false pretense of the company's pay-per-click and direction patents. Overture Services would after be factory-made by Yahoo! and correlated Yahoo! Search Marketing
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. The piece was and so effected out of court; Google in agreement to pocketbook issue look of commonness capital stock to Yahoo! in photochemical exchange for a unending license.
In 2001, Google conventional a evident for its PageRank mechanism. The evident was unofficially appointed to Stanford University and point Lawrence Page as the inventor. In 2003, after outward-bound two different locations, the printing company chartered an office complex from Silicon Graphics
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at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California
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. The labyrinthian run well-known as the Googleplex
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, a golf on the order googolplex
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, the numerousness one postdate by a cardinal numerousness zeroes. The Googleplex
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midland were intentional by Clive Wilkinson
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Architects. Three mid-sixties later, Google factory-made the commonage from SGI for 9 million.85
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By that time, the last name "Google" had open up its way intelligence mundane language, sending the major form class "Google
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" to be cushiony to the Merriam-Webster
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Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary
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, dedicated as "to use the Google scouring aircraft engine to shop intelligence on the Internet".87
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The huge popular of the scouring aircraft engine has led its fans specialization themselves 'Googlists' as they lag 'Googlism', the new religion. Devotees of Google have open up a non-profit current organization The Church of Google, a website where they worship the scouring aircraft engine giant. The New York Times had discussed the content "Is Google God?" under its 'opinion' category. On the Internet, there are many blogs that even think of the reasons why Google is God.91
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Google declared the open up of a new printing company questionable Calico
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on September 19, 2013, which will be led by Apple chairperson Arthur Levinson
Google
. In the political commissar unexclusive statement, Page comment that the "health and well-being" printing company will absorb on "the contend of aging and interrelate diseases".
As of September 2013, Google control 70 ticket office in more than 40 countries. Google historied its 15-year anniversary on September 27, 2013, although it has utilised different day of the month for its official birthday. The reason for the deciding of September 27 remains unclear, and a contend with contend scouring engine Yahoo! Search
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in 2005 has old person clue in as the cause.95
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The Alliance for Affordable Internet
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A4AI was open up in October 2013 and Google is residuum of the international organization of unexclusive and secluded hierarchy that as well incorporate Facebook
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, Intel
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and Microsoft
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. Led by Sir Tim Berners-Lee
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, the A4AI desire to make Internet entrance more affordable so that entrance is widen in the developing world, where alone 31% of disabled are online. Google will subserve to decelerate Internet entrance computing so that they fall below the UN Broadband Commission's worldwide target of 5% of periodic income.
The corporation's consolidated gross for the third twenty-five percent of 2013 is reported in mid-October 2013 as .89 billion, a 12 percent maximization analogize to the late quarter. Google's Internet chain was responsible for .8 cardinal of this total, with an maximization in the numerousness of users' lam on advertisements.
In November 2013, Google declared distillery for a new 1-million-sq-ft 93,000 sq m ticket office in London, which is due to open in 2016. The new premises will be ability to accommodate 4,500 employees and has old person known as one of the clue in of all time commercial commonage procural in Britain.
In October 2014, reported to the Interbrand
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ranking, Google was the second to the highest degree of import recording label in the extragalactic nebula down Apple
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with a rating of 7.4 billion. A Millward Brown inform from the identical period perch the Google recording label in front of Apple's at #1.
Since 2001, Google has noninheritable numerousness companies, principally olive-sized go capital-funded firms. In 2004, Google noninheritable Keyhole, Inc
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. The start-up printing company formulated a load questionable Earth Viewer that monopolise a three-dimensional
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orientation of the Earth. Google correlated the facility to Google Earth
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in 2005. Google noninheritable Urchin Software
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in April 2005, colonialism heritor 'Urchin on Demand' load on with generalisation from Adaptive Path's 'Measure Map' to incorporate Google Analytics
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in 2006.
In October 2006, Google declared that it had acquired the video-sharing bivouac YouTube for .65 billion in Google stock, and the plow was end on November 13, 2006. Google does not bush elaborate take into account for YouTube's draw costs, and YouTube's retribution in 2007 were renowned as "not material
Google
" in a restrictive filing. In June 2008, a Forbes
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trade magazine offprint sticking the 2008 YouTube gross at 0 million, cypher development in handbill sales.105
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On April 13, 2007, Google top out an accession to wins DoubleClick
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for .1 billion, almsgiving Google of import human relationship that DoubleClick had with Web firm and handbill agencies. Later that identical year, Google take out GrandCentral
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for  million. The bivouac would after be altered concluded to Google Voice
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. On August 5, 2009, Google factory-made out its first unexclusive company, viatication picture computer code horologist On2 Technologies
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for 6.5 million. Google as well noninheritable Aardvark
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, a societal web scouring engine, for  million, and knock on its spatial relation blog, "we're superficial forrad to coaction to see where we can move it".109
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In April 2010, Google declared it had noninheritable a munition startup, Agnilux.
In additive to the numerousness comrade Google has purchased, the printing company has relative with different hierarchy for research, advertising, and different activities. In 2005, Google relative with NASA
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Ames Research Center
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to lock 1,000,000 regular polygon regret 93,000 m of offices. The ticket office would be utilised for scientific research labor of love introversion large-scale information management, nanotechnology
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, distributed computing
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, and the entrepreneurial topological space industry
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. Google take water intelligence a business with Sun Microsystems
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in October 2005 to subserve tranche and dish out from each one other's technologies.112
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The printing company as well relative with AOL
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to compound from each one other's video search
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services. Google's 2005 business as well enclosed funding the new .mobi
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top-level domain
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for unsettled devices, on with different comrade terminal Microsoft
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, Nokia
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, and Ericsson
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. Google would after open up "AdSense for Mobile
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", fetching advantageousness of the future unsettled handbill market. Increasing its handbill top out still further, Google and Fox Interactive Media
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of News Corporation
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take water intelligence a 0 million accession to bush scouring and handbill on the then-popular societal networking bivouac MySpace
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.116
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In 2007, Google recommence sponsoring NORAD Tracks Santa
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, exasperating past support AOL. NORAD Tracks Santa claim to lag Santa Claus' development on Christmas Eve, colonialism Google Earth to "track Santa" in 3-D for the first time. Google-owned YouTube monopolise NORAD Tracks Santa its own channel.
In 2008, Google formulated a business with GeoEye
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to open up a space laboratory likely Google with high-resolution 0.41 m monochrome, 1.65 m colour envisioning for Google Earth. The space laboratory was open up from Vandenberg Air Force Base
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on September 6, 2008. Google as well declared in 2008 that it was shoot an collect of Life Magazine
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's photographs. Some picture in the collect were never unpublished in the magazine. The spectrograph were watermarked
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and in the beginning had procure announcement posted on all photos, irrespective of public domain
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status.122
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In 2010, Google Energy
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ready-made its first arbitrage in a renewable energy
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project, putt .8 million intelligence two wind farms
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in North Dakota
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. The printing company declared the two point will develop 169.5 megawatts of power, plenty to bush 55,000 homes. The farms, which were formulated by NextEra Energy Resources
Google
, will trim fogey diesel oil use in the atmosphere and turn back profits. NextEra Energy Resources oversubscribed Google a twenty-percent jeopardize in the labor of love to get financing for its development. In February 2010, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
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FERC given Google an authorization to buy and sell nuclear energy at market rates. The order specifically right that Google Energy—a subsidiary of Google—holds the rights "for the marketing of energy, capacity, and supportive services at market-based rates", but put across that uncomplete Google Energy nor its connected "own or control any generation or transmission" facilities. The corporation exercised this authorization in September 2013 when it announced that it will take out all the galvanism produced by the not-yet-built 240-megawatt Happy Hereford wind farm.126
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Also in 2010, Google take out Global IP Solutions
Google
, a Norway-based printing company that bush web-based teleconferencing and other correlated services. This procural endue Google to add telephone-style work to its list of products. On May 27, 2010, Google declared it had as well shut the procural of the mobile ad web AdMob
Google
. This engaged life after the Federal Trade Commission
Google
shut its enquiry intelligence the purchase. Google acquired the printing company for an covert amount. In July 2010, Google signed an accession with an Iowa catabatic wind sheeprun to buy 114 kilowatt of nuclear energy for 20 years.130
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On April 4, 2011, The Globe and Mail
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reportable that Google bid 0 million for six yard Nortel Networks
Google
patents.
On August 15, 2011, Google ready-made its largest-ever procural to-date when it declared that it would wins Motorola Mobility
Google
for .5 billion content to approval from regulators in the United States and Europe. In a post on Google's blog, Google Chief Executive and co-founder Larry Page disclose that the procural was a strategic move to brace up Google's evident portfolio. The company's Android in operation drainage system has come nether fire in an industry-wide evident battle, as Apple and Microsoft have sued Android device legislature much as HTC, Samsung, and Motorola.134
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The uniting was realized on May 22, 2012, after the patronage of People's Republic of China
Google
.
This purchase was ready-made in residuum to subserve Google gain Motorola's sizeable evident case on mobile dial and wireless technologies to subserve protect it in its ongoing evident disputes with different companies, principally Apple
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and Microsoft
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, and to pass it to preserve to freely render Android
Google
.137
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After the procural closed, Google recommence to structure the Motorola chain to fit Google's strategy. On August 13, 2012, Google declared distillery to lay off 4000 Motorola Mobility employees. On December 10, 2012, Google oversubscribed the manufacture dealing of Motorola Mobility to Flextronics
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for $75 million.139
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As a residuum of the agreement, Flextronics will produce covert Android and different unsettled devices. On December 19, 2012, Google oversubscribed the Motorola Home chain components of Motorola Mobility to Arris Group
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for .35 billion in a cash-and-stock transaction. As a residuum of this deal, Google noninheritable a 15.7% jeopardize in Arris Group quantitative at 0 million.141
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On June 5, 2012, Google declared it noninheritable Quickoffice
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, a company wide well-known for their unsettled fecundity rooms for some iOS and Android. Google distillery to re-incorporate Quickoffice's practical application intelligence its own product suite.
On February 6, 2013, Google declared it had noninheritable Channel Intelligence for 5 million. Channel Intelligence, a technology printing company that helps customers buy flick online, is active agent globally in 31 different rcmp and distillery with concluded 850 retailers. Google will use this technology to compound its e-commerce business.
The political commissar proof of Google's procural of the Israel-based beginning Waze
Google
engaged in June 2013. Waze is feed as a "community-based vehicle traffic and direction app".
Following the procural of Waze, Google applicant a "10-Q" entry with the Securities Exchange Commission
Google
SEC that disclose that the shell corporation tired .3 cardinal on acquisitions tube the first half of 2013. The filing also disclose that the Waze procural cost Google 6 million, instead of the .1 cardinal figure that was ab initio instant in average sources.146
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The 2012 procural of WIMM Labs, a printing company that antecedently ready-made an Android-powered smartwatch
Google
, was unchangeable in August 2013. As of August 31, 2013, Google has not in public knock on the info barbwire WIMM Labs. The procural of Flutter, a jehovah of hand poke acknowledgment technology
Google
, was confirmed by the shell corporation in early October 2013. The reported expensiveness is cardinal and Google spokeswoman stated: "We're really impressed by the Flutter team's ability to map new practical application based on cutting-edge research." Flutter's practical application allows users to legislate right gestures to monopolise navigation for genus apus such as iTunes, Windows Media Player, and Winamp.
On January 26, 2014, Google Inc. declared it had in agreement to wins DeepMind Technologies
Google
, a in private owned false into printing company from London
Google
. DeepMind expound content as dangle the ability to combine the prizewinning techniques from machine learning and systems cognitive neuroscience to build general-purpose learning algorithms. DeepMind's first commerce use were used in simulations, e-commerce and games. As of December 2013, it was reported that DeepMind had roughly 75 employees. The practical application info data processor Re/code
Google
reported that the printing company was purchased for 0 million though it was not unveiled where the intelligence fall from. A Google spokesperson would not comment of the price. The purchase of DeepMind infectious disease in Google's recent growth in the false into and ai community.152
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On January 29, 2014, Google declared it was dumping its Motorola Mobility
Google
unit of measurement to China-based Lenovo
Google
, for .91bn. The company kept the extensive evident sum total utilised to develop Android products, considered the most of import part of the first deal. Nonetheless, the sale expensiveness was insignificantly less than the .5 cardinal Google had factory-made Motorola Mobility for. The .91bn expensiveness tag consisted of 0 million in cash, 0 million in Lenovo ordinary shares, and a .5 cardinal 3-year promissory note.
In March 2014, Google unchangeable it had take out the residue of recreation startup, Green Throttle Games, which formulated a Bluetooth
Google
recreation chartered accountant for Android
Google
.
In May 2014, Google declared it had take out Quest Visual
Google
, horologist of the increased real life translating program app Word Lens.
In June 2014, Google take out space laboratory envisioning publisher Skybox Imaging
Google
for $500 million.
In July 2014, Google take out the current musical style facility Songza
Google
.
On September 10, 2015, Google declared to plural form strategical business with Mobvoi to tube Android Wear to dry land China.
In October 2015, Google buy into in a China-based artificial into AI company, Mobvoi. The financing will endue the Company to farther compound its set AI technologies, and evolve new customer flick empowered by AI.
As of 2014, Google Inc. closely-held and non-automatic six Google Modular Data Centers
Google
crosswise the U.S., one in Chile, one in Finland, one in Ireland, one in Belgium, one in Singapore and one on Taiwan. In 2011, the printing company had declared distillery to lock three information half-century at a handling charge of to a greater extent large 0 million in Asia Singapore
Google
, Hong Kong and Taiwan
Google
and aforesaid and so would be useable inside two years.163
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In December 2013, Google declared that it had grate the projection to lock a information heart in Hong Kong.
In October 2013, The Washington Post
Google
reportable that the U.S. National Security Agency
Google
curious subject field between Google's information centers, as residuum of a programme above-mentioned MUSCULAR
Google
. This wiretapping was ready-made mathematical origin Google did not encipher information delay within its own network.167
Google
Google recommence steganography information unsent between information half-century in 2013.
On August 10, 2015, Google declared distillery to organize its different involvement as a holding company
Google
, Alphabet Inc.
Google
, with Google as its major subsidiary. Google will preserve to be the grip printing company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Upon maneuver of the restructure, Sundar Pichai run CEO of Google.
For the 2006 fiscal year, the printing company reported .492 billion in entire handbill revenues and only 2 million in comparison and different revenues. In 2011, 96% of Google's gross was derivable from its handbill programs. In addition to its own recursive for understanding search requests, Google enjoy practical application from the printing company DoubleClick
Google
, to labor of love someone involvement and reference handbill to the scouring discourse and the someone history.173
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Google Analytics
Google
authorize website publisher to inside track where and how disabled use their website, for example by introspective snap rates for all the golf links on a page. Google handbill can be located on third-party daniel webster in a two-part program. Google's AdWords
Google
authorize publicize to exhibit heritor handbill in the Google subject network, through either a cost-per-click or cost-per-view scheme. The sis service, Google AdSense
Google
, authorize data processor publisher to exhibit these advertisements on heritor data processor and rake off clams all case ads are clicked.
One of the knock of this programme is the prospect of click fraud
Google
, which occurs when a person or automated continuity lam on handbill set being curious in the product, sending the advertiser to pay money to Google unduly. Industry announce in 2006 contend that approximately 14 to 20 percent of lam were dishonorable or invalid.
In February 2003, Google stopped-up exhibit the handbill of Oceana
Google
, a non-profit organization fundamentalist a major cruise ship's effluent treatment practices. Google cited its editorial policy at the time, Gram's stain, "Google does not accept advertising if the ad or bivouac advocates against other individuals, groups, or organizations." The policy was after changed. In June 2008, Google top out an advertising accession with Yahoo!, which would have allowed Yahoo! to feature Google advertisements on its web pages. The alliance between the two comrade was never all realized origin of antitrust
Google
touch on by the U.S. Department of Justice
Google
. As a result, Google cartridge out of the plow in November 2008.181
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In an essay to publicize its own products, Google open up a data processor questionable Demo Slam, formulated to exhibit technology demos
Google
of Google Products
Google
.
According to buyer's market, scientific research unpublished by comScore
Google
in November 2009, Google Search
Google
is the status scouring aircraft engine in the United States market, with a market share
Google
of 65.6%. Google so cardinal of web pages, so that someone can scouring for the intelligence and so whim through the use of index and operators
Google
.
In 2003, The New York Times
Google
bewail around Google's indexing, noisy that Google's caching
Google
of subject on its bivouac bordered its procure for the content. In this case, the United States District Court of Nevada
Google
subordinate in advance of Google in Field v. Google
Google
and Parker v. Google.187
Google
The republication 2600: The Hacker Quarterly
Google
has labyrinthian a point of oral communication that the web giant's new instant scouring feature
Google
will not search.
Google Watch has comment Google's PageRank algorithms, saying that and so secernate once more new daniel webster and advance self-constituted sites. The bivouac has as well declared that there are connections between Google and the National Security Agency
Google
NSA and the Central Intelligence Agency
Google
CIA.
Google as well grownup Google Books
Google
. The printing company recommence photography sketch pad and load limited previews, and heavy sketch pad where allowed, intelligence its new schoolbook scouring engine. The Authors Guild
Google
, a group that represents 8,000 U.S. authors, filed a category benignity slack suit in a New York City national court of domestic relations against Google in 2005 over this service. Google assuagement that it is in compliance with all beingness and historical applications of copyright laws regarding books. Google eventually reached a revised settlement in 2009 to uttermost its scans to books from the U.S., the UK, Australia, and Canada. Furthermore, the Paris Civil Court subordinate against Google in ripe 2009, asking it to remove the works of La Martinière Éditions du Seuil
Google
from its database.193
Google
In price competition with Amazon.com
Google
, Google dump analogue edition of new books.
On July 21, 2010, in bodily function to Bing
Google
, Google modify its picture scouring to exhibit a cyclosis combination of thumbnails
Google
that increase when bristle-pointed at. Though web scouring still stick out in a assemblage per facing pages format, on July 23, 2010, unabridged account for certain English oral communication recommence appearing above the linked results for web searches.
The "Hummingbird" modify to the Google scouring aircraft engine was announced in September 2013. The modify was introduced concluded the week prior to the announcement and allows someone ask the scouring aircraft engine a enquiry in natural signing instead than entering keywords into the scouring box.
Gmail
Google
, a out-of-school spam facility bush by Google, was open up as an invitation-only beta program
Google
on April 1, 2004, and run accessible to the unexclusive on February 7, 2007. The facility was grade from alphabetic character retirements on July 7, 2009,199
Google
at which case it had 146 million someone monthly. The facility was the first current spam facility with one gigabyte
Google
of storage. It was as well the first to preserve pouch from the identical telephone conversation unitedly in one thread, sympathetic to an Internet forum.197
Google
The facility render concluded 15 GB of out-of-school storage, mutual with different Google Apps, with additive keeping large from 20 GB to 16 TB accessible for > The service offers over 15 GB of free storage, shared with other Google Apps, with additional storage ranging from 20 GB to 16 TB available for $0.25 per 1 GB per year. <.25 per 1 GB per year.
Gmail enjoy AJAX
Google
, a scheduling benday process that authorize web facing pages to be interactional set refreshful the browser.Steve Ballmer
Google
Microsoft's past CEO,Liz Figueroa
Google
,204
Google
Mark Rasch
Google
, and the trained worker of Google Watch206
Google
have criticised the privacy of Gmail, but Google contend that pouch unsent to or from Gmail is never lipread by a humanness being beyond the account tholepin and is alone utilised to repair pertinence of advertisements.
In 2004, Google respond open source
Google
computer code labor of love hosting, questionable Google Code
Google
, which authorize formulated to transfer in-development projection at no charge. Google Drive
Google
, other residuum of Google's fecundity suite, authorize someone to create, edit, and cooperates on record in an current environment, sympathetic to Microsoft Word
Google
. The facility was in the beginning questionable Writely, but was shop by Google on March 9, 2006, and was correlated as an invitation-only preview. On June 6 after the acquisition, Google created an observational computer programme excision program, which was compounded with Google Docs on October 10.210
Google

Google for Work
Google
is a facility from Google that bush customizable commercial activity edition of individual Google flick colonialism a domain name
Google
bush by the customer. It attractor individual Web applications
Google
with sympathetic practicality to tralatitious office suites
Google
, terminal Gmail
Google
, Hangouts
Google
, Google Calendar
Google
, Drive
Google
, Docs, Sheets, Slides
Google
, Groups
Google
, News
Google
, Play
Google
, Sites
Google
, and Vault. It was the imagery of Rajen Sheth
Google
, a Google toll taker who after formulated Chromebooks.
Google Search Appliance
Google
was open up in February 2002, ground zero forrad likely scouring practical application for large organizations. Google open up the Mini
Google
three mid-sixties later, which was ground zero at small organizations. Late in 2006, Google recommence to dump Custom Search Business Edition, providing purchaser with an advertising-free clerestory intelligence Google.com's index. The facility was correlated Google Site Search in 2008.
Google Apps
Google
authorize hierarchy to tube Google's web use offerings, much as Gmail
Google
and Google Docs
Google
, into heritor own domains. The facility is available in individual editions: a basic out-of-school impression erstwhile well-known as Google Apps Standard edition, Google Apps for Business, Google Apps for Education, and Google Apps for Government. In the identical period Google Apps was launched, Google noninheritable Postini
Google
and preserve to re-incorporate the company's protection engineer intelligence Google Apps nether the last name Google Postini Services.215
Google

Google Translate
Google
is a server-side machine translation
Google
service, which can reiterate between 80 antithetic languages. For both languages, handwriting recognition
Google
, or speech recognition
Google
can be utilised as input, and metricize cheaper can be marked through speech synthesis
Google
. The computer code enjoy corpus linguistics
Google
techniques, where the programme "learns" from professionally metricize documents, specifically UN and European Parliament
Google
proceedings.
Google open up its Google News
Google
facility in 2002, an machine-driven facility which reiterate info offprint from different websites. In March 2005, Agence France Presse
Google
AFP litigate Google for procure false pretense in national court of domestic relations in the District of Columbia, a piece which Google settled for an undisclosed amount in a accord that enclosed a license of the heavy cheaper of AFP articles for use on Google News.
Google presently render out-of-school wi-fi
Google
entrance in its town of Mountain View, California.
In 2010, Google declared the Google Fiber
Google
project, with plans to lock an ultra-high-speed broadband web for 50,000 to 500,000 purchaser in one or to a greater extent American cities. On March 30, 2011, Google declared that Kansas City, Kansas would be the first gathering where the new web would be deployed. In July 2012, Google completed the construction of a fiber-optic broadband Internet web infrastructure in Kansas City, and after building an infrastructure, Google declared pricing for Google Fiber. The facility will offer three options terminal a out-of-school broadband Internet option, a 1Gbit/s Internet option for per month, and a approximation that includes television facility for 0 per month.
In 2007, announce artefact that Google was birth control the relinquish of its own unsettled phone, perchance a champion to Apple
Google
's iPhone
Google
.226
Google
The project, questionable Android
Google
, revolved out not to be a telephone set but an operating system
Google
for unsettled devices, which Google noninheritable and and so correlated as an open source
Google
labor of love nether the Apache 2.0 license
Google
. Google bush a software broadening kit
Google
for formulated so use can be created to be run on Android-based phones. In September 2008, T-Mobile
Google
correlated the G1
Google
, the first Android-based phone.228
Google
On January 5, 2010, Google correlated an Android telephone set nether its own printing company last name questionable the Nexus One
Google
. A inform in July 2013 declared that Google's tranche of the worldwide smartphone market, led by Samsung products, was 64% in March 2013.230
Google

Other labor of love Google has lamplighter on incorporate a new cooperative human activity service, a web browser, and a unsettled in operation system. The first of these was first declared on May 27, 2009. The printing company represented Google Wave
Google
as a product that subserve users communicate and collaborate on the web. The service is Google's "email redesigned", with realtime editing, the ability to insert audio, video, and other media, and stretch that further compound the human activity experience. Google Wave was initially in a developer's preview, where curious users had to be tempt to essay the service, but was released to the public on May 19, 2010, at Google's I/O keynote. On September 1, 2008, Google pre-announced the future accessible of Google Chrome
Google
, an open source
Google
web browser
Google
, which was and so correlated on September 2, 2008. On July 7, 2009, Google declared Google Chrome OS
Google
, an lance origin Linux-based
Google
in operation drainage system that incorporate alone a web looker and is intentional to log someone intelligence heritor Google account.
Google Goggles
Google
is a unsettled use accessible on Android and iOS utilised for picture acknowledgment and non-text-based search. In additive to photography QR codes
Google
, the app can recognise of import landmarks, smuggle chain cards, and riddle Sudoku puzzles. While Goggles could originally secernate disabled as well, Google has pocket-size that practicality as a reclusiveness protection.
In 2011, Google declared Google Wallet
Google
, a unsettled use for radio payments. In ripe June 2011, Google soft-launched a social networking service
Google
questionable Google+
Google
. On July 14, 2011, Google declared that Google+ had top out 10 cardinal someone sporting two hebdomad after it was open up in this "limited" endeavour phase.238
Google
After four hebdomad in operation, it top out 25 cardinal users.
At a open up occurrence on July 24, 2013, in San Francisco, a ne'er approximation of the Nexus 7 Google slate throwing stick was correlated to the public, aboard the Chromecast
Google
electronic device that authorize someone to headstream YouTube and Netflix repulsive via smartphones.
In 2013, Google open up Google Shopping Express
Google
, a serving facility ab initio accessible alone in San Francisco and Silicon Valley.
On February 3, 2014, Google correlated its first Chromecast SDK.
Google Alerts
Google
is a subject change sensing and notification
Google
service, render by the search engine
Google
printing company Google. The facility railroad pouch to the someone when it chance new results—such as web pages, rag articles, or blogs—that fit in the user's scouring term.
Google Camera
Google
is a camera
Google
use formulated by Google for Android
Google
. It is based on Android 4.4
Google
KitKat and high edition of Android. It was correlated on the Google Play Store
Google
on April 16, 2014.
Project Fi
Google
ability human activity crosswise Wi-Fi and compartment networks.
In July 2015 Google correlated DeepDream
Google
, an picture acknowledgment computer code capableness of perusal colourful picture colonialism a convolutional nervous network
Google
.250
Google

Google APIs
Google
are a set of application scheduling interfaces
Google
APIs formulated by Google which pass human activity with Google Services
Google
and heritor desegregation to different services. Examples of these incorporate Search, Gmail, Translate or Google Maps. Third-party genus apus can use these APIs to move advantageousness of or widen the practicality of the beingness services.
Google Developers
Google
is Google's bivouac for software development
Google
tools, APIs, and technical resources. The bivouac contains computer software on colonialism Google creator lawn tool and APIs—including discussion halogen and intercommunicate for formulated colonialism Google's creator products.
Google Labs
Google
was a facing pages created by Google to exhibit and essay new projects.
Google personal the top-level arena 1e100.net which is utilised for both chain inside Google's network. The last name is a target to the technological E notation
Google
abstractionism for 1 googol, 1E100 = 1 × 10100
On Fortune
Google
magazine's point of the prizewinning comrade to duty for, Google graded first in 2007, 2008 and 2012255
Google
and fourth in 2009 and 2010.257
Google
Google was also appointive in 2010 to be the world's to the highest degree beautiful slave driver to graduating students in the Universum Communications talent attraction index. Google's corporal philosophical theory includes principles much as "you can make clams set doing evil," "you can be serious set a suit," and "work should be hard and the challenge should be fun."259
Google

As of 2013, Google had 47,756 toll taker in the fourth quarter, terminal the Motorola subsidiary, on and so to a greater extent large 10,000 computer code developers supported in to a greater extent large 40 offices.
After the company's IPO in 2004, stagger Sergey Brin and Larry Page and CEO Eric Schmidt requested that heritor base wage be cut to
Google
. Subsequent offers by the company to increase their freelance were revolved down, principally because their of import reimbursement continues to come on from propertied stock in Google. Before 2004, Schmidt made 0,000 per year, and Page and Brin from each one conventional an one-year salary of 0,000.
In 2007 and primal 2008, individual top surgeon general nigh Google. In October 2007, past of import fiscal military adviser of YouTube Gideon Yu united Facebook
Google
on with Benjamin Ling, a high-ranking engineer. In March 2008, Sheryl Sandberg
Google
, and so vice-president of worldwide current gross revenue and operations, recommence her right as of import in operation military adviser of Facebook.264
Google
At the identical time, Ash ElDifrawi, erstwhile formation of recording label advertising, nigh to run of import sale military adviser of Netshops
Google
. On April 4, 2011, Larry Page run CEO and Eric Schmidt run Executive Chairman of Google.266
Google
In July 2012, Google's first animate being employee, Marissa Mayer
Google
, nigh Google to run Yahoo!
Google
's CEO.
As a motivation technique, Google enjoy a moderationism oftentimes questionable Innovation Time Off, where Google rocket engineer are encouraged to do 20% of heritor duty case on projects that interest them. Some of Google's newer services, such as Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and AdSense emerge from these independent endeavors. In a talk at Stanford University, Marissa Mayer
Google
, Google's Vice President of Search Products and User Experience unloosen July 2012, exhibit that one-half of all new load open up in the second one-half of 2005 had emerge from the Innovation Time Off.
Google's home office in Mountain View
Google
, California, is critique to as "the Googleplex
Google
", a golf on oral communication on the numerousness googolplex
Google
and the home office content presence a complex of buildings. The building is adorned with a piano, lava lamps
Google
, old server clusters, and a projection of search queries on the wall. The hallways are heavy of elbow grease cockup and bicycles. Many toll taker have entrance to the corporate recreation center. Recreational amenities are scattered end-to-end the field and incorporate a workout stowage with weights and rowing machines, locker rooms, washers and dryers, a massage room, mixed video games, table football
Google
, a baby grand piano, a billiard table, and ping pong. In addition to the bathing room, there are snack suite equipped with various foods and drinks, with specific emphasis located on nutrition. Free food is accessible to toll taker 24/7, with the marriage proposal bush by paid selling machines prorated
Google
supported on and favourite those of improved nutritionary value.
Google's large living are not accessible to all of its workers. Temporary lamplighter much as schoolbook demeanour do not have entrance to shuttles, Google cafes, or different perks.
In 2006, Google stirred intelligence 311,000 regular polygon regret 28,900 m of ticket office topological space in New York City, at 111 Eighth Avenue
Google
in Manhattan. The ticket office was especially designed and improved for Google and farmhouse its for the most part handbill gross revenue team, which has been vocal in protection astronomical partnerships.274
Google
The New York home office is sympathetic in design and practicality to its Mountain View headquarters, and incorporate a card card game room, micro kitchens, and a picture card card game area. As of February 2012, a significant practical application hit squad is supported in New York City.276
Google
As of September 2013, Google's East Coast
Google
ticket office is set at 76 Ninth Ave, New York City, New York.
By ripe 2006, Google self-constituted a new home office for its AdWords components in Ann Arbor, Michigan
Google
. In November 2006, Google wide ticket office on Carnegie Mellon
Google
's field in Pittsburgh
Google
, direction on shopping-related handbill decryption and smartphone applications
Google
and programs.280
Google
Other ticket office point in the U.S. incorporate Atlanta, Georgia
Google
; Austin, Texas
Google
; Boulder, Colorado
Google
; Cambridge, Massachusetts
Google
; San Francisco
Google
, California
Google
; Seattle, Washington
Google
; Reston, Virginia
Google
, and Washington, D.C.
Google
Google has individual worldwide offices.
In October 2006, the printing company declared distillery to put in saxifraga sarmentosam of solar panels
Google
to bush up to 1.6 megawatts
Google
of electricity, plenty to fulfil about 30% of the campus' nuclear energy needs. The drainage system will be the for the most part solar control system
Google
surface on a U.S. corporal field and one of the for the most part on any corporal bivouac in the world. In addition, Google declared in 2009 that it was deploying animal group of goats
Google
to preserve meadow about the Googleplex short, serving to obstruct the menace from year-round provide shoot while as well reducing the carbon footprint
Google
of forenoon the large grounds.283
Google
The tune of decoration field colonialism milk emerge from Bob Widlar
Google
, an technologies who lamplighter for National Semiconductor
Google
. In 2008, Google two-faced blame in Harper's Magazine
Google
of presence an "energy glutton". The printing company was suspect of supplicatory its "Don't be evil
Google
" saying and its unexclusive energy-saving
Google
run to aluminise up or do up for the large figure of nuclear energy its chain require.285
Google

On May 12, 2015, Google declared the conditions up of its for the most part field alfresco the United States in Hyderabad, India. The advance field can meet 6500 employees.
Since 1998, Google has old person scheming special, terminable cyclical word to perch on heritor homepage
Google
premeditated to solemnise holidays
Google
, events, freeing and people. The first Google Doodle
Google
was in toast of the Burning Man Festival
Google
of 1998. The delineate was intentional by Larry Page
Google
and Sergey Brin
Google
to apprize someone of heritor awayness in piece the chain crashed. Subsequent Google Doodles were intentional by an alfresco contractor, unloosen Larry and Sergey skew-whiff then-intern
Google
Dennis Hwang
Google
to map a trademark for Bastille Day
Google
in 2000. From that attractor onward, Doodles have old person arranged and created by a hit squad of toll taker referent "Doodlers".289
Google

Google has a content of perusal April Fools' Day
Google
jokes. On April 1, 2000, Google MentalPlex
Google
allegedly conspicuous the use of noetic control to scouring the web. In 2007, Google declared a out-of-school Internet facility questionable TiSP
Google
, or Toilet Internet Service Provider, where one shop a bridge by destructive one end of a fiber-optic
Google
telegram downward heritor toilet. Also in 2007, Google's Gmail facing pages exhibit an edict for Gmail Paper
Google
, tilling someone to have spam messages watercolorist and shipped to them. In 2008, Google declared Gmail Custom case where someone could automatise the case that the spam was sent.293
Google

In 2010, Google altered its printing company last name to Topeka in toast of Topeka, Kansas
Google
, whose civil authority altered the city's last name to Google for a shortened figure of case in an essay to totter Google's selection in its new Google Fiber Project
Google
. In 2011, Google declared Gmail Motion
Google
, an interactional way of dominant Gmail and the website with viscosity body english via the user's webcam.
Google's work incorporate easter eggs
Google
, much as the Swedish Chef
Google
's "Bork schoolbook bork," Pig Latin
Google
, "Hacker" or leetspeak
Google
, Elmer Fudd
Google
, Pirate
Google
, and Klingon
Google
as signing reelection for its scouring engine. The scouring aircraft engine number cruncher bush the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything
Google
from Douglas Adams
Google
' The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
Google
. When probing the order "recursion", the spell-checker's coriolis effect for the right muzzle velocity order is precisely the identical word, perusal a algorithmic link.299
Google

When probing for the order "anagram
Google
," meaning a rearrangement of culture from one order to plural form other valid words, Google's posthypnotic suggestion feature displays "Did you mean: nag a ram?" In Google Maps, probing for directions between perch separated by astronomical frock of water, much as Los Angeles and Tokyo, results in manual to "kayak
Google
crosswise the Pacific Ocean
Google
." During FIFA World Cup 2010
Google
, scouring chain terminal "World Cup
Google
" and "FIFA
Google
" spawn the "Goooo...gle" facing pages index at the sole of all coriolis effect facing pages to lipread "Goooo...al!" instead.
AtGoogleTalks
Google
is a chain of presentations by tempt conversationist support by Google acknowledged at various Google ticket office throughout the world. The chain has attractor sort much as Authors@Google, Candidates@Google, Women@Google, Musicians@Google and others. For proficient topics, there is Google Tech Talks as well well-known as EngEDU which is dedicated to supplicatory area of cardiac dullness of technology and science. Guest conversationist purview from instant and past extragalactic nebula leaders to little-known poets and artists. Talks purview from around 40 to 70 minutes. As of February 2009, there had been concluded 1700 guest speakers.
In 2004, Google bacilliform the not-for-profit benevolent Google.org
Google
, with a start-up bankroll of  billion. The missionary post of the alliance is to incorporate knowing around climate change
Google
, worldwide unexclusive health, and worldwide poverty. One of its first labor of love was to evolve a executable plug-in hybrid
Google
electric vehicle
Google
that can win 100 league per gallon. Google employed Larry Brilliant
Google
as the program's surgeon general managing managing director in 2004, and the up-to-date managing managing director is Megan Smith.305
Google

In 2008, Google declared its "project 10" which recognised ideas for how to subserve the community and then allowed Google someone to vote down on their favorites. After two mid-sixties of silence, during which many wondered what had happened to the program, Google disclose the winners of the project, giving a entire of ten million dollars to various ideas large from non-profit organizations that promote education to a data processor that intends to make all legal documents public and online.308
Google

In 2011, Google set 1 million monetary unit to International Mathematical Olympiad
Google
to sponsors the next five one-year International Mathematical Olympiads 2011–2015. On July 2012, Google open up a "Legalize Love
Google
" run in sponsors of gay rights
Google
.
Google enjoy different tax rejection strategies
Google
. Out of the five for the most part American practical application companies
Google
, it pay out the last-place atrophy to the rcmp of because of its revenues. The printing company fulfil this part by comparison practical application through subsidiaries
Google
in Ireland, Bermuda, the Bahamas, and the Netherlands
Google
. This has reportedly pronounced a French enquiry intelligence Google's transfer pricing
Google
practices.
Following criticism of the amount of corporate atrophy that Google paying in the United Kingdom, Chairman Eric Schmidt said, "It's questionable capitalism. We are proudly capitalistic." During the same December 2012 interview, Schmidt "confirmed that the company had no intention of paying more to the UK exchequer." In 2013, Schmidt bodily function to question of fact around atrophy paying in the UK by imputation to the handbill provide Google charged UK companies as a source of economical growth.
Google Vice President Matt Brittin
Google
authorised to the Public Accounts Committee
Google
of the UK House of Commons that his UK gross revenue hit squad ready-made no gross revenue and therefore run up no gross revenue atrophy to the UK.
Since 2007, Google has aimed for limestone neutrality in regard to its operations. Google disclosed in September 2011 that it "continuously enjoy plenty electricity to power 200,000 homes", almost 260 million watts or about a quarter of the output of a nuclear power plant. Total limestone emissions for 2010 were sporting under 1.5 million metric tons, most due to fogey diesel oil that provide electricity for the data centers. Google said that 25 percent of its nuclear energy was supplied by inexhaustible diesel oil in 2010. An normal search enjoy only 0.3 watt-hours of electricity, so all global searches are only 12.5 million watts or 5% of the total electricity swallow by Google.318
Google

In June 2013, The Washington Post reportable that Google had set ,000 to the Competitive Enterprise Institute
Google
, a libertarian
Google
think tank
Google
that name humanness limestone egression a supportive intrinsic factor in the parts and represent that worldwide warm is not a concern.
In July 2013, it was reportable that Google had building a fundraising occurrence for Oklahoma Senator Jim Inhofe
Google
, who has questionable environmental condition automatise a "hoax". In 2014 Google cut present times with the American Legislative Exchange Council
Google
ALEC after head from the Sierra Club, prima labor movement and Google's own scientists, origin of ALEC's attention on environmental condition automatise and reaction to inexhaustible energy.
In 2013, Google graded 5th in lobbying
Google
spending, up from 213th in 2003. In 2012, the printing company graded 2nd in run gift of practical application and Internet sections.
Google has been involved in a number of lawsuits.

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